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2. Servitization for OEMs: Usage-Based Models

Usage-based models are one type of servitization model that is gaining popularity among OEMs. In this blog post, we will dive deeper into usage-based models, exploring what they are, successful use cases, benefits for customers and OEMs, and how they can enable sustainability.

This post is part of our series on equipment-based servitization models for Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) and Value-Adding Resellers (VARs).


What are Usage-Based Models?

Usage-based models are a type of servitization model that allows customers to pay based on their actual usage of a product or service. In this model, customers pay for the amount of product or service they use, rather than owning or renting the equipment for a defined period of time.

Usage-based models are typically enabled through the use of IoT sensors and other monitoring technologies that track the usage of the product or service. This data is then used to calculate the customer's usage and bill them accordingly.

Usage-based models can be used across a wide range of industries and products, including equipment such as HVAC systems, lighting systems, and generators, as well as services such as transportation and energy.


Successful Use Cases

There are several examples of companies that have successfully implemented usage-based models, including:

Signify: The company offers a lighting-as-a-service model that allows customers to pay based on the amount of light they use, rather than purchasing lighting fixtures outright.

GE Aviation: The company offers a usage-based model for its jet engines, where customers pay based on the number of flight hours, rather than owning the engines.

Shell Energy: The energy company offers a pay-as-you-go fuel program, where customers can pay for fuel based on the amount they use, rather than filling up their tanks and paying a fixed price.


Customer Benefits



Predictable costs

Reduced risk

OEM Benefits

Potential for Increased Revenue

Better Capacity Planning

Improved Asset Utilisation

Reduced Risk



Usage-based models enable sustainability by promoting resource efficiency and reducing waste. With usage-based models, customers only pay for what they actually use, which incentivizes them to use resources more efficiently and avoid unnecessary waste. This can lead to reductions in energy consumption, material waste, and greenhouse gas emissions.

In addition, usage-based models can help extend the life of products and equipment by promoting better maintenance and repair practices. By closely monitoring usage data, OEMs can identify potential issues before they become major problems and perform preventative maintenance to prolong the lifespan of equipment.

Furthermore, usage-based models can also promote the development of more sustainable products and services. As OEMs gain better insights into customer needs and usage patterns, they can use this information to design more efficient and sustainable products and services that better meet customer needs. This can help to reduce the environmental impact of products and services over their entire lifecycle.

Overall, usage-based models can contribute to a more sustainable business model by promoting resource efficiency, reducing waste, and driving the development of more sustainable products and services.


Data utilisation

Data is essential for the success of usage-based models as the revenue driver is tracking of usage.

Optimising delivery and equipment performance - 5/5

Developing new products and services - 4/5

Improving commercial terms - 3/5

Reducing depreciation risks - 3/5

Reducing cost of service delivery - 5/5

In conclusion, data utilization is crucial for the success of usage-based models as it enables accurate billing, optimizes equipment performance, reduces downtime, and enhances customer satisfaction.

Data plays a critical role in optimizing delivery and equipment performance, reducing the cost of service delivery, and ensuring accurate billing based on usage. It also helps OEMs develop new products and services that better meet customer needs. While data can reduce depreciation risks, the usage-based model inherently mitigates these risks as the customer pays for usage.

OEMs must prioritize data collection and analysis capabilities to leverage the insights that data provides and make usage-based models profitable and sustainable in the long term.


Financing need

Usage-based models also require financing for similar reasons to subscription-/rental-based models, but with some differences in emphasis.

Off-balance sheet financing

Cash flow financing

Overall, securing financing is an important consideration for OEMs in usage-based models, as it can help them manage cash flow, reduce the impact on their balance sheet, and ensure that the model is profitable and sustainable in the long term.

The type of financing needed will depend on the specific circumstances of the OEM, such as the amount of capital required, the expected revenue generated over time, and the length of the usage period.

Financing options may include bank loans, leasing arrangements, captive finance companies, or other sources of funding. OEMs must carefully consider the costs and benefits of each financing option to ensure that the model is profitable and sustainable in the long term.

Additionally, OEMs must ensure that financing arrangements comply with applicable regulations and accounting standards.


Succeeding with's EaaS capabilities can help OEMs successfully implement usage-based models in servitization, securing above mentioned benefits such as flexible and affordable access to equipment or services for customers, increased revenue potential, better capacity planning, and improved asset utilisation for OEMs.

Data-driven billing is a crucial capability for successful implementation of usage-based models, but few OEMs have it today without significant investment. This is a key part of’s offering and by creating an independent "one-truth" for usage and billing amounts, OEMs can ensure accurate and transparent billing for customers.



In conclusion, usage-based models have emerged as a promising servitization model for OEMs in various industries. This model provides customers with flexible and affordable access to equipment or services, while OEMs benefit from increased revenue, better capacity planning, and improved asset utilisation. Moreover, usage-based models promote sustainability by reducing waste and extending the lifespan of equipment.

Data collection and analysis capabilities play a critical role in optimising equipment performance, reducing downtime, and ensuring accurate billing based on usage. Financing is also necessary for managing cash flow effectively and removing equipment from the OEM's balance sheet. By securing appropriate financing, OEMs can reduce financial risk and sustain the model in the long run.

Overall, usage-based models provide a win-win situation for both customers and OEMs and have the potential to transform industries across a wide range of products and services. By prioritising data collection and analysis capabilities and carefully considering financing options, OEMs can successfully implement this servitization model and meet the evolving needs of their customers in a sustainable and profitable way.


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